Posted by: 4pack | June 16, 2009

“Ideal Diet”: “Carbohydrate Restricted Diets” (CRD) With Daily Consumption Of Three Eggs Has Positive Health Benefits And Lowered Inflammatory Profile

We conclude that daily intake of 3 eggs while following a CRD results in a significant decrease in CRP and a more pronounced increase in adiponectin, thus, improving the inflammatory profile. These findings suggest a role of eggs due to their cholesterol and antioxidant content in achieving maximum benefits with carbohydrate restricted diets on certain inflammatory cytokines.

. Additionally, whole eggs contain the potent antioxidant, lutein, which protects against numerous inflammatory processes [18]. To our knowledge this is the first study measuring inflammatory marker responses to a CRD utilizing eggs as a source of dietary cholesterol and lutein.”]Eggs are a breakfast staple that are affordable and provide a good source of protein and other valuable nutrients. Experimental studies show that the additional dietary cholesterol provided by whole eggs does not increase the risk of CVD in a variety of sample populations [16,17]. Additionally, whole eggs contain the potent antioxidant, lutein, which protects against numerous inflammatory processes [18]. To our knowledge this is the first study measuring inflammatory marker responses to a CRD utilizing eggs as a source of dietary cholesterol and lutein.

Eggs are a breakfast staple that are affordable and provide a good source of protein and other valuable nutrients. Experimental studies show that the additional dietary cholesterol provided by whole eggs does not increase the risk of CVD in a variety of sample populations. Additionally, whole eggs contain the potent antioxidant, lutein, which protects against numerous inflammatory processes. To our knowledge this is the first study measuring inflammatory marker responses to a CRD utilizing eggs as a source of dietary cholesterol and lutein.

http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/5/1/6

Carbohydrate restricted diets (CRD) consistently lower glucose and insulin levels and improve atherogenic dyslipidemia [decreasing triglycerides and increasing HDL cholesterol (HDL-C)]. We have previously shown that male subjects following a CRD experienced significant increases in HDL-C only if they were consuming a higher intake of cholesterol provided by eggs compared to those individuals who were taking lower concentrations of dietary cholesterol. Here, as a follow up of our previous study, we examined the effects of eggs (a source of both dietary cholesterol and lutein) on adiponectin, a marker of insulin sensitivity, and on inflammatory markers in the context of a CRD.

Methods

Twenty eight overweight men [body mass index (BMI) 26–37 kg/m2] aged 40–70 y consumed an ad libitum CRD (% energy from CHO:fat:protein = 17:57:26) for 12 wk. Subjects were matched by age and BMI and randomly assigned to consume eggs (EGG, n = 15) (640 mg additional cholesterol/day provided by eggs) or placebo (SUB, n = 13) (no additional dietary cholesterol). Fasting blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention to assess plasma lipids, insulin, adiponectin and markers of inflammation including C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1).

Results

Body weight, percent total body fat and trunk fat were reduced for all subjects after 12 wk (P < 0.0001). Increases in adiponectin were also observed (P < 0.01). Subjects in the EGG group had a 21% increase in this adipokine compared to a 7% increase in the SUB group (P < 0.05). Plasma CRP was significantly decreased only in the EGG group (P < 0.05). MCP-1 levels were decreased for the SUB group (P < 0.001), but unchanged in the EGG group. VCAM-1, ICAM-1, TNF-α, and IL-8 were not modified by CRD or eggs.

Conclusion

A CRD with daily intake of eggs decreased plasma CRP and increased plasma adiponectin compared to a CRD without eggs. These findings indicate that eggs make a significant contribution to the anti-inflammatory effects of CRD, possibly due to the presence of cholesterol, which increases HDL-C and to the antioxidant lutein which modulates certain inflammatory responses.

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