Posted by: 4pack | July 2, 2008

DIET VS. EXERCISE….LET THE BATTLE OF THE RATIO BEGIN

I AM TRULY PSYCHED THIS MORNING…I FOUND THIS WRITE-UP FROM WWW.EMAXHEALTH.COM WHICH WAS REPORTING THE FINDINGS OF A “FIRST OF ITS KIND STUDY”, (ARE YOU KIDDING ME?????) THAT, USING SCIENTIFIC CONTROL GROUPS AND PRACTICES, AIMS TO FIND OUT HOW WEIGHT LOSS PROGRAMS (I.E. DIET) COMPARES WITH EXERCISE PROGRAMS (USUALLY FITNESS CENTERS BECAUSE MOST OF US WANT SOCIAL SETTINGS).

IN  A STUDY CALLED “Comparison of a Commercial Weight Loss Program to a Fitness Center” – published online in the June edition of the Journal of Exercise Physiology, RESULTS CAME BACK VERY INCONCLUSIVE BUT NONETHELESS AN IMPORTANT STEP FORWARD….

THIS SITE WILL MAINTAIN, AND CONTINUALLY PROMOTE, WHAT THE AUTHOR FEELS IS PARAMOUNT FOR “IDEAL SHAPE, WEIGHT, AND FAT COMPOSITION” FOR OGGIES WILL BE ACHIEVED BY….80-90% DIET AND 10-20% EXERCISE, WITH THE EXERCISE NEEDING TO BE “ALL DAY” APPLICATION OF CORE ISOMETRICS AND “PILATEYOGA” (GREAT NEW TERM) PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FAIRLY HONESTLY CARRIED OUT IN “INTERVAL” TRAINING REGIMENS….WALK THE STAIRS BRISKLY (CONTRACTING CORE)…GET UP AND WALK BRISKLY TO CAR, BATHROOM, OTHER ROOMS WHILE CONTRACTING CORE….LIFT LEGS UP IN THE CAR WHILE DRIVING AND HOLD RECTUS ABDOMINUS (CORE) MUSCLES IN TIGHT…PUSH-UPS AT BATHROOM COUNTER, ON CHAIR INFRONT OF YOU WITH PUSH-DIPS BETWEEN CHAIR ARM RESTS TO GET DEEP EXERCISE OF PECS WHILE CONTRACTING CORE….HOLD A CRUNCH SIT-UP IN THE UP POSITION WHILE WATCHING TV UNTIL THE RA’S BURN….THEN RIP OFF 30 CRUNCHES WHILE WATCHING TV PROGRAM….THINK CORE AND EAT EVERY 3 HOURS….LIMIT TOTAL CALORIES TO UNDER 2000 6 DAYS A WEEK IF YOU ARE 6′ OR UNDER…I AM 5’10″…THE DANIEL CRAIG/JAMES BOND 007 NOTWITHSTANDING, FOUR PACKS ARE ATTAINED BY REAL GUYS, OGGIES, OVER 40, BY LONG-TERM DISCIPLING AND LIFE STYLE CHANGE…

HERE IS ARTICLE TO READ WITH IMPORTANT EXCERPTS OF STUDY AT END…

 

(From Emaxhealth.com)

“In the first study of its kind, using sophisticated methods to measure body composition, the nationally known commercial weight loss program, Weight Watchers, was compared to gym membership programs to find out which method wins in the game of good health. A University of Missouri researcher examined the real-life experiences of participants to determine which program helps people lose pounds, reduce body fat and gain health benefits. The answer is that both have pros and cons and that a combination of the two produces the best results.

Participants who attended Weight Watchers for 12 weeks lost an average of 5 percent of their body weight, or about nine pounds. However, Steve Ball, assistant professor of exercise physiology in the MU College of Human Environmental Sciences, found that a large percentage of the lost weight was lean tissue and not fat.

“Participants’ body fat percentage did not improve at all because they lost a much higher percentage than expected of lean tissue,” said Ball, MU Extension state fitness specialist. “It is advantageous to keep lean tissue because it is correlated with higher metabolism. Losing lean tissue often slows metabolism. What your body is made of is more important than what you weigh.”

The majority of other Weight Watcher studies had not considered body fat percentage change and only focused on body weight.

“This is one aspect of our study that makes it unique,” Ball said. “We used a sophisticated measure of body composition – the Bod Pod – to look at what type of weight was lost: lean or fat.”

In addition, Ball said the study was novel because Computer Tomography (CT scans) were used to investigate changes in abdominal fat, which is more predictive of cardiovascular disease. Although the fitness center group lost very little weight, they probably improved their health because they lost a significant amount of intraabdominal fat (fat around vital organs). These results imply that exercise may have positive influence on the metabolic syndrome despite the number on the scale, Ball concluded.

Ball also found that group support is very important. Most of the Weight Watchers participants stuck with the program during the duration of the study, while many of the fitness center participants quit.

“These results imply that overweight, sedentary women joining a fitness center with the intent of weight loss or body fat change will likely fail without support and without altering their diets,” Ball said. “Nearly 50 percent of people who start an exercise program will quit within six months.”

“This study attempted to discover what takes place in the real world when overweight women attempt to lose weight.” Ball said. “I think the outcome of the study speaks volumes about the necessity for a multi-pronged approach in order to lose weight, body fat and gain health benefits. I hope that this will be the first in a series of studies investigating commercial weight-loss programs.”

The study – “Comparison of a Commercial Weight Loss Program to a Fitness Center” – was published online in the June edition of the Journal of Exercise Physiology.”

Excerpts from Journal of Exercise Physiology Study below:

Obesity has increased dramatically in almost every state, race, age group, and sex over the past twenty years. Close to 65% of the American population is either overweight or obese which is[1, 2]. Obesity is associated with a number of adverse health defined as having a BMI of > 25 kg/m2 consequences. Higher body weight can have a marked increase in morbidity from hypertension, type [3]. 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, certain types of cancers, psychological disorders, as well as increase in all cause mortality.

The recommendation to treat overweight and obesity is based not only on evidence that relates obesity to increased mortality but also that weight loss reduces risk factors for disease [4]. Weight loss, whether by caloric restriction, exercise, or a combination of both caloric restriction and exercise, has been shown to have various positive effects on the human body: improvement on body composition, abdominal adiposity [5-8], the lipoprotein profile [9], and other metabolic variables resulting in improved health.

Particularly of interest is abdominal adiposity. Subcutaneous abdominal or visceral adiposity hasIt is clear that exercise carries additional metabolic health benefits whether accompanied by weight been linked to the lipoprotein profile [10], postprandial lipemia (PPL) [11], insulin sensitivity [12], elevated C-reactive protein [13], and to multiple parameters of the metabolic syndrome [14]. When abdominal adipose tissue, especially visceral, is reduced by diet and/or exercise, the lipoprotein profile is improved [15-18], thus providing support for a link between abdominal adiposity and the lipoprotein profile. Since a poor lipoprotein profile and abdominal obesity are metabolic risk factors and are associated with CHD and diabetes, it is important to study various treatments for decreasing abdominal fat and improving the lipoprotein profile. loss or not [14]. It is also clear that weight loss via diet or exercise can positively influence the lipoprotein profile [7] . Nevertheless, little data is available on the efficacy of commercial weight loss programs such as Weight Watchers (WW) for weight loss, body composition change, and lipoprotein  profile improvements. WW is a relatively well-known program that uses a point counting system to monitor caloric intake. Participants have weekly weigh-ins and meetings. Despite being the largest provider of commercial weight loss services in the US [19], very little independent research has investigated the efficacy of this commercial program for weight loss or for improving metabolic markers. Although studies involving WW are available [20-25], a closer look at these studies indicates they were either conducted or funded by WW. More importantly, only one currently published WW study [26] has included a measure of body composition (fat mass vs. fat free mass), a critical omission when evaluating the effectiveness of a weight loss program. Individuals may lose weight, but if that weight is in the form of lean tissue, metabolism decreases [27]. In addition, the published WW studies have no measure of abdominal visceral fat. Research has consistently shown abdominal visceral fat is a much better predictor of cardiovascular disease and other metabolic problems than is total body weight or total body fat percentage [28]. Currently, it is not known if WW participants are losing any significant amounts of abdominal visceral fat.

Most experts agree a combination of exercise and diet therapy is the most effective way to significantly alter body weight, body composition, including abdominal fat, and metabolic variables.

For example, the American College of Sports Medicine, a leading agency in the field of exercise science, prescribes moderate caloric restriction in combination with moderate intensity aerobic exercise and resistance training. Although exercise prescription must always be altered to fit the individual, this general formula is widely accepted as a recommended means to alter body weight and body composition. It is not known if WW is as effective at lowering body weight, altering body fatness (especially abdominal fat) and improving the lipoprotein profile as compared to the recommended formula so often used by fitness professionals and fitness centers.

The purpose of the current study is to compare the effectiveness of WW to a joining a fitness center (FC) for weight loss and body composition changes after 12 weeks. A secondary purpose is to  investigate changes in blood chemistry after 12 weeks. In addition to being the first study comparing WW to FC, this research is unique because it will include valid and reliable easures of body composition and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat, key variables missing in the majority of existing studies.

Adherence[48].

Fifty percent of people that begin exercise programs end up dropping out within six months Data also supports that sedentary participants are more likely to adhere to a low intensity or moderate intensity exercise rather than one of high intensity [49]. The FC program included exercise of moderate to vigorous intensity which may have contributed to a high drop out rate. Two times as(n=5). Anecdotally, many subjects (n=10) dropped out from the exercise program compared to WW several FC subjects reported a lack of motivation to stick with the exercise program when BW was not decreasing rapidly. Again, for overweight sedentary women, joining a fitness without additional support will likely result in failure. Although commercial weight loss programs typically also have somewhat high drop out rates [26], the group support associated with WW is no doubt a crucial aspect of the program not found at most fitness centers.

LimitationsThere are several study limitations. Although each limitation has been previously acknowledged and discussed they are summarized here fo r review: (1) There was not a “true” control group ; (2) several variables including BW differed at baseline between groups; (3) the short duration of the intervention limits conclusions; and (4) exercise logs were not carefully completed by all subjects. Study limitations should be considered when interpreting and translating the results of research.

CONCLUSIONSThe present study attempted to uncover what transpires in the “real-world” when overweight women attempt to lose weight and improve BF by joining either a fitness center or enrolling in WW. Although WW subjects were able to lose a significant amount of weight and improve abdominal fatness, body composition did not improve after 12 weeks. A loss of FFM might be detrimental to long term weight loss maintenance. Furthermore, the results imply that overweight women joining a fitness center with the intent of weight loss or BF change will likely fail without altering diet. Additional support such as a personal trainer, workout partner, or life coach might also be beneficial. Neither program was successful at significantly altering the lipoprotein profile. The short duration of this study provides a picture of initial changes in body mass, body composition and blood lipids. A study of longer duration is needed. Health professionals should consider these results when recommending weight loss programs.

 

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